Every year, millions of people are diagnosed with cancer, a disease in which cells begin to grow uncontrollably and spread to other parts of the body. Many of these cancers are hereditary, which means they’re in part caused by a genetic predisposition that runs in a person’s family. For example, 5 – 10% of breast and 10 – 15 of ovarian cancers occur due to hereditary risk factors.
While there are a number of genetic predisposition that can lead to cancer, one of the most well – known factors that increase people’s risk for various cancers is a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Not everyone with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation will get cancer, but it’s important to understand the associated risk and the preventive care options.
Here’s what you need to know about BRCA1 and BRCA2, according to experts.
What does it mean to have a BRCA mutation?
According to Payal Shah, MD, a medical oncologist at Penn Medicine and assistant professor of medicine at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, everyone has two copies of genes called BRCA1 and BRCA2, one copy inherited from each parent. BRCA1 and 2 are repair genes, so they help the body repair mistakes in DNA.
Karelena Lara – Otero, PhD, a genetic counselor at Stanford Health Care, says BRCA1 and 2 genes are specifically tumour suppressor genes that prevent cells from growing out of control, which is what leads to cancer. ‘When these genes work properly, they go to the site where cell damage occurs and repair it so cells can continue to function properly’, Lara – Otero tells Health.
A BRCA mutation occurs when someone’s born with a copy of a BRCA gene that doesn’t suppress tumour growth effectively. This can lead to an increased risk of various cancers.
Anyone who inherits a pathogenic variant of a BRCA gene from one of their parents has a BRCA mutation. While anyone can have this mutation, some people are at a higher genetics risk. According to Dr. Shah, 1 in 40 people Ashkenazi Jewish descent have BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.
What risk factors are increased with a BRCA mutation?
According to Mike Suguitan, MS, LCGC, a genetic counselor at Northwestern Medicine, both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation increase the risk for breast, ovarian, prostate, and pancreatic cancers, but he tells Health that a person’s specific risk for developing those cancers depends on which mutated gene they carry.
For example, Huma Rana, MD, MPH, clinical director of the Cancer Genetics and Prevention program at the Dana – Farber Cancer Institute, tells Health that a BRCA1 mutation presents a higher risk for triple – negative breast cancer, a subtype of breast cancer that doesn’t involve the three hormone receptors involved in other types of breast cancer. BRCA1 mutations also come with a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer than BRCA2.
And while BRCA2 mutation is also associated with breast cancer and ovarian cancer, those with this mutation have a slightly lower chance of developing either. According to Suigitan, people with a BRCA1 mutation have a 46 – 87% chance of developing breast cancer and a 40% chance of developing ovarian cancer. Those with a BRCA2 mutation have a 33 – 84% chance of developing breast cancer and a 20% chance of developing ovarian cancer.
Dr. Rana says these mutation carriers have higher risks of other cancers as well, including melanoma, pancreatic cancer, and aggressive prostate cancers, though BRCA2 is also associated with more hormone – receptor – positive cancers than BRCA1.
How to get tested for a BRCA mutation?
If you’re wondering whether you may have a BRCA mutation, the first step is to collect your family health history. If you have BRCA – related cancer in your family, you may be a candidate for testing. For example, Dr. Shah says a clinician may test people with relatives who had breast cancer at a young age.
As you collect family health history, pay attention to certain details. Make sure you have information on the types of cancers in your family, including the age of diagnosis, how the person is related to you, and whether they ever had any other genetic testing dome for inherited cancers’, says Dr. Rana.
It’s also important to understand the limitations in your family history. For example, if your parent is only child or your parent was adopted, Dr. Rana says that’s not the same as having no family history of cancer.
If you do have a family history of any cancers associated with BRCA mutations, bring it up to your doctor, who can help you determine whether you should undergo genetic testing. According to Dr. Rana, your doctor may also recommend genetic testing if you don’t know your family history and can’t access it.
Diagnosis with certain types of cancer may prompt genetic testing, too. Dr. Shah says high – grade serous ovarian cancer, for example, should be tested upon diagnosis. Any patient with triple – negative breast cancer should be tested. ‘Diagnosis at a younger age or a somewhat younger age with a family history clues us in as well’, she explains.
If your doctor refers you for genetic testing, you’ll likely work with a genetic counselor. According to Lara – Otero, if your results show a genetic mutation, you’ll visit the genetic counsellor for a more in – depth conversation about the altered gene, the risks, and prevention strategics.
Preventive Care Options
Tarah Ballinger, MD, an oncologist at Indiana University Health tells Health there are a few ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer. A prophylactic bilateral mastectomy – having all your breast tissue removed – reduces a person’s risk to almost zero. The alternative to a mastectomy is increased screening; Dr. Ballinger says people with a mutated BRCA1 or 2 gene typically get a mammogram and breast MRI each year, alternating every six months. Both screenings increase the odds of the early detection and treatment of cancer, should it develop.
Another option is a chemotherapy drug called Tamoxifen, which reduces the number of estrogen receptors in breast cells and in turn, helps to prevent estrogen – related breast cancer. ‘In high – risk individuals, Tamoxifen reduces the risk in absolut half’, Ballinger says. ‘It’s only reducing estrogen – driven cancers, which are much more common in BRCA2 mutation carriers’.
Dr. Ballinger says screening for ovarian cancer can be more difficult. Doctors use transvaginal ultrasounds and blood tests screening – unlike breast cancer screenings – have not been proven to have an impact on survival. To reduce the risk of both breast and ovarian cancer, a person with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation may opt to have their overies removed.
Pancreatic cancer screening is less common. If you have a family history of pancreatic cancer and a BRCA mutation, Dr. Ballinger says your doctor may recommend annual abdominal MRIs and blood tests for tumour markers. The same is true for prostate cancers.
If you do have a BRCA mutation, it’s normal to feel overwhelmed. Aim to find a team of health care providers who can educate you on what your mutation means and lower your risk however possible. ‘It’s a good to take the time to gather information and think about what you want to do about your mutation, and to find health care teams you feel comfortable with to discuss the decision making’, Dr. Ballinger says.